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Textile Industry Skills | Five ways to identify common fibers

Textile Industry Skills | Five ways to identify common fibers

With the continuous advancement of textile production technology, more and more new fibers have become raw materials for textiles, which has brought about the problem of identifying fibers for textiles. Commonly used fiber identification methods include microscopic observation, combustion, reagent coloration, dyeing, and dissolution.

With the continuous advancement of textile production technology, more and more new fibers have become raw materials for textiles, which has brought about the problem of identifying fibers for textiles. Commonly used fiber identification methods include microscopic observation, combustion, reagent coloration, dyeing, and dissolution.

As a textile company with more than 15 years of R&D and production experience, we will simply popularize the following knowledge to you:

Professional in the textile industry

1. Microscope observation method
Make longitudinal slices and cross-sectional slices of the fibers, observe longitudinal and transverse morphology of the fibers under a microscope, and identify the fibers base on the difference in morphological characteristics, as shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Morphological characteristics of various fibers:

Fiber typeVertical formCross-sectional shape
Tencel fiberSmoothMore regular round or oval, with a core layer
Modal fiber1-2 grooves in the longitudinal directionIrregular similar to round waist, smoother, with leather core
Soybean fiberIrregular grooves and island-like bumps on the surfaceFlat dumbbell-shaped and round waist
Bamboo fiberGrooves on the surfaceZigzag type, with core layer
Chitin FiberObvious grooves on the surfaceZigzag edge, with obvious small gaps in the core layer
Viscose fiberGrooves on the surfaceZigzag type, with core layer
Cotton fiberNatural twistRound waist with middle cavity
SilkSmooth surfaceIrregular triangle
Wool fiberScaly surfaceRound shape
Polyester fiberStick shape on the surfaceSmooth surface round

2. Combustion method

Different fibers have different flames, smoke, odors, residues, etc. during the combustion process. Therefore, the types of fibers can be distinguished according to the characteristics of the fibers during and after combustion, as shown in Table 2.

Table 2 Characteristics of various fibers during and after combustion:

Fiber typeClose to the flameIn the flameLeave the flameBurning smellResidue form
Tencel fiberDoes not melt or shrinkBurning quicklyKeep burningBurnt paper flavorGray-black residue
Modal fiberDoes not melt or shrinkBurning does not melt with black smokeKeep burningBurnt paper flavorGray-black residue
Soybean fiberShrinkBurning quicklyNot easy to fire spreadSingeing flavorCrunchy black ash residue
Bamboo fiberDoes not melt or shrinkBurning quicklyKeep burningBurnt paper flavorGray-black residue
Chitin FiberDoes not melt or shrinkBurning quicklyKeep burningBurnt paper flavorGray-black residue
Viscose fiberDoes not melt or shrinkBurning quicklyKeep burningBurnt paper flavorA small amount of off-white ash
Cotton fiberDoes not melt or shrinkBurning quicklyKeep burningBurnt paper flavorA small amount of off-white ash
SilkShrinkBurning quicklyNot easy to fire spreadSingeing flavorCrunchy black ash residue
Wool fiberShrinkBurning quicklyNot easy to fire spreadSingeing flavorCrunchy black ash residue
Polyester fiberMelt and shrinkMelt then burn with solution drippingEasy to fire spreadSpecial aromaGlassy dark brown hard ball

3. Reagent color method

Due to the different structures of various fibers, they have different coloring reactions to iodine and potassium iodide solutions. The fiber can be identified by observing the color and swelling of the fiber after the action of the reagent. This identification is only applicable to white fibers, and colored fibers can only be tested after fading. Reagent preparation: Dissolves 20g of iodine in 100ml of saturated potassium iodide solution, mixes thoroughly and then immerse the fiber for 1 minute,after washing then judge it by its color, as shown in Table 3.

Table 3 The coloring reaction of various fiber burning to iodine solution:

Fiber typeTencel fiberModal fiberSoybean fiberBamboo fiberChitin Fiber
Color development with iodine solutionBlack blue cyanBlue grayBrownnessBlue grayBlack
Fiber typeViscose fiberCotton fiberSilkWool fiberPolyester fiber
Color development with iodine solutionBlack blue cyanNot stainedLight yellowLight yellowNot stained

4. Dyeing method
For the dyeing method to identify fibers, which one is mainly based on the difference in color reaction of various fibers to dyes. Here are two dyeing methods, one is cold dyeing and the other is boiling dyeing. And the formula of the dyeing method, as shown in Table 4.

Table 4 Dyeing formula:

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